• Female Genital Mutilation Victims

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    all external genitalia and stitching the vaginal opening closed, leaving only a small opening for menstrual flow. While there are cases in which girls and women do not experience comorbid  complications, all females who undergo FGM are unable to fully experience orgasm. Background of the problem and significance Some of the female African patients for whom advanced practice nurses  (APNs) may provide care may have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) in their home countries. FGM refers to all procedures that involve either total or partial removal of the external  female genitalia, as well as any other injury to the female genital organs that is intended to comply with a cultural practice, i.e., a non-therapeutic rationale (Onuh, et al, 2006).  There are four specific types of FGM that have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO). There are: * Type 1 is the partial or total excision of  the clitoris, * type 2 is the excision of the clitoris and the labia minora, * type 3 is the excision of part or all of the external genitalia and  stitching /narrowing of the vaginal opening (infibulation), * Type 4 is the unclassified type and refers to any other mutilation performed on the external genitalia such as gishiri cut,  piercing and massaging of any part of external genitalia (Onuh, et al, 2006, p. 409). The WHO has supported efforts to stop all forms of FGM and has been  successful in having several African governments, such as Senegal and Burkina Faso, to declare it to be illegal (Behrendt and Steffen, 2005). Nevertheless, despite these efforts, FGM continues to be  practiced in several many countries throughout the globe, but particularly in Africa (Onuh, et al, 2006). It has been estimated that between 100 and 132 millions girls and women are 

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