This 9 page paper presents part of a research proposal to study the factors that contribute to the difference in achievement levels between suburban and urban students. The introduction provides a basic overview of standardized tests, the purpose of the study and the hypothesis for the study. The literature review reports studies that confirm the gap between suburban and urban but also identifies other variables affecting achievement, such as poverty. The methodology section describes the types of data to be collected. Bibliography lists 11 sources.
Name of Research Paper File: MM12_PGstndt.rtf
Unformatted Sample Text from the Research Paper:
manufactured by companies as norm-referenced as well as criterion-referenced tests many states are now using (FairTest, n.d.). These tests are referred to as high-stakes tests when students must pass them
to be promoted to the next grade level or to graduate from high school (FairTest, n.d.). Tests that determine scholarships, college-entrance, or even enrollment in a special program are also
high-stakes tests. At least 17 states require students to pass such a test to graduate and more are planning to initiate the same type of requirement (FairTest, n.d.). These laws
have been passed despite the voluminous amount of research suggesting that standardized tests are biased against some populations (FairTest, n.d.). Research studies have shown that the socio-economic status and educational
background of the family are the most important factors in the variability of test scores (Wakefield, n.d.). Specific studies have found that urban and rural students do less well on
these tests than do suburban students (Wakefield, n.d.; St. Petersburg Times, 2001; Loveless, 2001; Temple, 1998). Numerous studies demonstrate that White students score higher than minority students (Wakefield, n.d.; Loveless,
2001). The problem to be addressed is: Is it possible to determine factors that result in higher test performance in suburban schools than in urban schools? If so, what factors
account for the difference in standardized test performance between suburban and urban school students? The hypothesis for this study is: Suburban schools offer more of the variables related to higher
student achievement than do urban or inner-city schools. These variables include parent involvement, smaller classes, and more experienced teachers. Review of the Literature A report released by the U.S.
Department of Education in 2001 showed the gap between the worst-performing and best-performing schools fluctuated a great deal over the previous eight years but the gap has been narrowing since