• Teenage Pregnancy in the UK - Assessing the Effectiveness of Strategies and Identifying Potential Improvements to Help Reduce Incidence Levels

    Pages: 53

    This 53 page paper is an examination of the high level of incidence of teenage pregnancy in the UK. The aim of paper is to assess existing policies, strategies and interventions in order to identify potential gaps and weaknesses where improvements may be made in order to a reduced the level of incidence of teenage pregnancy UK. The paper is presented in the style of a font dissertation, starting with an introduction, background information and justification for the study, followed by in-depth literature review, methodology, research findings and then discussion. The paper ends by making recommendations regarding the introduction of new policies were interventions in the adaptation of existing approaches. The paper focuses on teenage conceptions to women under the age of 18 years. The bibliography cites 40 sources.

    File: TS14_TEteenpregUK.doc

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    Study 7 2.4 Limitations 8 2.5 Chapter Outline 8 3. Literature Review 9 3.1 Epidemiology of Teenage Pregnancy in the UK 9 3.1.1 The Incidence of Teenage Pregnancy 9 3.1.2 Geographical Variances 10 Figure 1 Teenage Pregnancy Rates in England and Wales in  2009 14 3.1.3 Economic Influences 17 3.1.4 Age of Initial Sexual Activity 21 3.1.5 Mental Health Influences 22 3.1.6 Influence of Addictive Substances 23 3.1.7 Influence of Academic Achievement 24 3.1.8 Influence of Family Background 26 3.1.9 Ethnicity Influences 27 3.1.10 Combined Influences 28 3.2 Problems/Risks Associated with  Teenage Pregnancy 29 3.2.1 Health Risks to the Mother 30 3.2.2. Health Risks to the Baby 31 3.2.3 Social and Economic Problems 32 4. Methodology 34 4.1 Methodological Framework 34 4.2 Methodology to be Applied 43 5. Research Findings 44 6. Discussion and Recommendations 56 References 62  1. Abstract The teenage pregnancy rate in the UK, usually measured as conception in women under the age of 18 years, is  the highest in Western Europe; five times the rate of Holland. This high rate of conception has a large number of associated negative health and social issues. Risks include increased  risk of maternal mortality and health dangers for the babies including development issues and low birth rate. Additionally, there is also the potential for social exclusion which may result in  significant economic disadvantages for the mother and child. The way in which these risks manifest is divergent; the incidence rate for England was 38.2 pregnancies per 1,000 women between the  ages of 18 and 17 years. This is not evenly spread, with some areas having much higher rates such as Blackpool with a 67.4 incidence rate and Windsor and Maidenhead  with an incidence rate of 11.4. Research has indicated that there are many influences, including the association of higher incidence rates and  the concentration of poverty and deprivation, use of addictive substances, low educational achievements, low parental expectations and unsettled family backgrounds. In 

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