This 16 page paper outlines how research may be conducted to ascertain the relationship between the use of private security firms and reductions in crime rates. The paper looks at the theoretical framework, including ideas such as rational choice theory and routine activities theory. The paper then indicates how primary research may be undertaken. The bibliography cites 13 sources.
for accountability it is unsurprising that the policing model has changed over the last few decades. With crime rising and police numbers dropping the concern of the public may be
justified. For many the concern will be silent, for others there will be a vocal reaction. In more recent time there has also be a trend for the public to
take matters into their own hands, from vigilante action to the hiring of private security guards to substitute the police role. The former of these actions has been seen as
foolhardily, the later is more controversial with evidence indicating both improvements with crime reduction where private security patrols take place and a range of research, some of which indicates improvements,
others which indicates a shifting of the geographical locations of the crime rather than the actual occurrence being reduced. The research question is what, if any, is the relationship between
the reduction in crime rates and the presence of private security measures. The evidence is mixed and to appreciate any research there has to be both a theoretical basis
as well as a research undertaking. The research can then build on the theory and consider the results form a differing perspective in order to reach a conclusion.
2. Theoretical Background To develop research that looks at if what and how private security may influence a reduction in crime level the first aspect has to be a brief consideration
of crime theories and why individuals may commit crimes. There are several theories that can be used and built upon. The best known is that of rational choice theory (Scott,
1999). The main concept in rational choice theory is that individuals will act in a particular way for a specific reason, often to maximise their utility (Scott, 1999). The