• Research Paper on:
    Effects Of High-Stakes Tests

    Number of Pages: 46


    Summary of the research paper:

    This 46 page paper presents a hypothetical research study that investigates the effects of high-stakes standardized norm-referenced tests on fourth grade students and teachers. Standardized norm-referenced tests have been an issue of great controversy for many years. The implementation of standards and high-stakes testing has only fueled that controversy. While the purpose of high-stakes testing may be laudable, the results are not. More and more studies report the harmful effects of these testing programs on both students and teachers. Good teachers have had to change the focus of instruction as well as their teaching practices to meet the demands of these testing programs. The pressure is profound teachers, students and administrators. This essay provides a comprehensive overview of high-stakes testing. As a hypothetical research study, the paper includes an introduction, definitions, purpose of study, problem statement, hypotheses, extensive literature review, methodology of the study, discussion and conclusion. The 'subjects' are 4th grade students and teachers in New York. Statistical data are included throughout the paper. Bibliography lists 18 sources. PGhistk.rtf

    Name of Research Paper File: MM12_PGhistk.rtf

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    Unformatted Sample Text from the Research Paper:
    the fact that teachers are so pressured to have their students earn high scores that they spend their time training students how to take the test instead of on learning  how to apply the content (Neill, 1998). Nonetheless, since the Russians went into space first in 1957, there has been an ever-increasing emphasis on standardized testing (FairTest, 1999). At that  time, the American public wanted to know what had happened to cause America come in second and the answer was a lack of quality education in our public schools  (FairTest, 1999). First, science and math programs were revised, requiring more math and science in schools and arts, social studies and other subjects were relegated to the background in  schools (FairTest, 1999). That has continued to this day. Educational reforms continued to be emphasized from the 1960s until the present day (FairTest, 1999). More and more pressure has been  placed on schools to have students excel in these hard subjects and they became the focus of more and more testing (FairTest, 1999 The 1990s found educators being bombarded with  mandates for accountability (FairTest, 1999). This mandate has only been increased and made stronger. Once politicians entered the foray, educators found themselves with new and higher levels of standards for  each grade level, standards that in many cases cause profound anxiety in students and teachers, standards that are pushing children too hard and expecting too much if a childs developmental  process is considered. If standards are mandated then there must also be a measurement process that is mandated. How else can the public and the politicians be assured standards are  being mastered by students? There must be a national average against which to compare each student. Nationally norm-referenced tests are the only available tests that meet the criteria. Standardized norm-referenced 

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