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    Methodology for Planned Change and Evaluation at the Micro Level

    Number of Pages: 3


    Summary of the research paper:

    A 4 page research paper that discusses the process of planned change that a social worker undertakes when working with individuals, couples, families or small groups. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

    Name of Research Paper File: KL9_khmethod.rtf

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    of systems that are related to their client concerns (Hepworth, et al, 2010). Client systems range from micro systems, that is, "individuals, couples, families and groups," to macro system,  such as institutions and organizations, which represent "mezzo" or "macro systems" (Hepworth, et al, 2010, pp. 23-24). In working with clients at the micro level, there are four primary approaches  that can be utilized for implementing planned change. These are "The Task-Centered System; Crisis Intervention; Cognitive Restructuring and Solution-Focused" (Hepworth, et al, 2010, p. 355). These four approaches are  each consistent with a "systematic generalist-eclectic practice," as described by Coady and Lehmann in their 2008 text, which emphasizes a "personal and environment focus that is informed by ecological theory"  and the need to establish a "positive helping relationship" that incorporates "holistic multilevel assessment" (Hepworth, et al, 2010, p. 355). Linking client systems to resource system, which are capable of  providing the goods and services that clients require is a fundamental function of social work (Hepworth, et al, 2010). Traditionally, social workers  have utilized the "ecological, person-in-environment perspective" in regards to assessment, which is basically a "social diagnosis" that considers only the client system and environment in order to formulate interventions (Derezotes,  2000, p. 3). However, by taking an ecological perspective on assessment, the social worker takes a broader perspective that also considers the "strengths and weaknesses (limitations or vulnerabilities) of the  client system and its environment" (Derezotes, 2000, p. 3). In regards to the change process itself, Kurt Lewin, in his pioneering work on this topic in the 1950s, has  pointed out that change involves three distinct steps, which are "unfreezing, changing and then refreezing" (Reinardy and Zoff, 2006, p. 1033). "Unfreezing" refers to the fact that detrimental habits and 

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